Detection of electroencephalographic, electromyographic, and cardiac variations during wake-sleep transition through change point analysis

Erik Leonardo Mateos-Salgado,, Fructuoso Ayala-Guerrero



Introduction. Wake-sleep transition is a continuous, gradual process of change. Most studies evaluating electroencephalogram spectral power during this transition have used variance analysis (ANOVA). However, using this type of analysis does not allow one to detect specific changes in the statistical properties of a time series.

Objective. To determine whether change point analysis (CPA) makes it possible to identify and characterize electroencephalographic, electromyographic, and cardiac changes during the wake-sleep transition through a cross-sectional study.

Method. The study included 18 healthy volunteers (12 women and six men), from which polysomnography data were obtained during a two-minute transition. Heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, electroencephalogram spectral power, as well as electromyographic median and mean frequency and electromyographic root mean square were calculated in five-second segments. These segments were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA, and CPA focused individually and for the group as a whole.

Results. Repeated measures ANOVA and CPA by group found decreased levels of alpha and beta power and beta/delta index during wakefulness, and increased theta and delta power levels during sleep. CPA by individual found that only alpha power changed in all participants and failed to identify a specific moment when all the variables studied changed simultaneously.

Discussion and conclusion. We consider that CPA provides additional information to statistical analyses such as ANOVA for the specific location of physiological changes during sleep-wake transition.


Analysis of variance; change point analysis; polysomnography; sleep; wakefulness

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