Salud Mental

Epidemiological description of suicide mortality in the state of Yucatan between 2013 and 2016


Davinia Velázquez-Vázquez
Arsenio Rosado-Franco
Danielina Herrera-Pacheco
Esteban Aguilar-Vargas
Nina Méndez-Domínguez


Introduction. Every region in the world has an epidemiological trend of death by suicide that is particular and dependent on its sociodemographic and cultural aspects. Knowing the epidemiological characteristics of people who have died by suicide in the state of Yucatan is important for understanding the phenomenon and planning future preventive strategies.

Objective. To describe the epidemiological characteristics of suicide mortality between 2013 and 2016.

Method. Observational, descriptive study, retrospective longitudinal section, in which the epidemiological trends of mortality are analyzed.

Results. In the period studied, Yucatan was among the states with the highest mortality rate due to suicide. Hanging was the most frequent method, followed by the use of agrochemicals. Together, these methods were employed by nearly 95% of those who died. Agrochemical use was associated with a greater likelihood of receiving medical care before death compared with other methods, particularly hanging (24.5 to 1.00).

Discussion and conclusion. In this study, sociodemographic differences and factors associated with suicide were observed. Suicide methods are consistent with those observed nationwide and in countries with poverty and agricultural societies. Preventive measures to address this problem in the state could incorporate the epidemiological characteristics of the population with suicidal tendencies in Yucatan. Suicide in the state of Yucatan is an ongoing public health problem, which showed an annual increase in the period studied and a significant predominance in the month of May.
Suicide, mortality, risk factors, cause of death, Yucatan, epidemiology


Download data is not yet available.


Banerjee, S. & Chowdhury, A. N. (2017). Globalisation of pesticide ingestion in suicides: an overview from a deltaic region of a middle-income nation, India. In: White, R., Jain, S., Orr, D., & Read, U. (eds). The Palgrave Handbook of Sociocultural Perspectives on Global Mental Health. London: Palgrave Macmillan. doi: 10.1057/978-1-137-39510-8_32

Beautrais, A. L. (2002). A case control study of suicide and attempted suicide in older adults. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 32(1), 1-9. doi: 10.1521/suli.

Belló, M., Puentes-Rosas, E., Medina-Mora, M. E., & Lozano, R. (2005). Prevalencia y diagnóstico de depresión en población adulta en México. Salud Pública de México, 47(Suppl 1), S4-S11.

Berrouiguet, S., Courtet, P., Larsen, M. E., Walter, M., & Vaiva, G. (2018). Suicide prevention: Towards integrative, innovative and individualized brief contact interventions. European Psychiatry, 47, 25-26. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2017.09.006

Bertolote, J. M. & Fleischmann, A. (2015). A global perspective in the epidemiology of suicide. Suicidologi, 7(2), 6-8. Recuperado de:

Borges, G., Orozco, R., Benjet, C., & Medina-Mora, M. E. (2010). Suicidio y conductas suicidas en México: retrospectiva y situación actual. Salud pública de México, 52(4), 292-304. Recuperado de:

Brown, R. P., Imura, M., & Osterman, L. L. (2014). Gun culture: Mapping a peculiar preference for firearms in the commission of suicide. Basic and applied social psychology, 36(2), 164-175. doi: 10.1080/01973533.2014.882259

Carleton, T. A. (2017). Crop-damaging temperatures increase suicide rates in India. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(33), 8746-8751. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1701354114

Choi, N. G., DiNitto, D. M., & Marti, C. N. (2017). Youth firearm suicide: Precipitating/risk factors and gun access. Children and youth services review, 83, 9-16. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2017.10.022

Dervic, K., Oquendo, M. A., Grunebaum, M. F., Ellis, S., Burke, A. K., & Mann, J. J. (2004). Religious affiliation and suicide attempt. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161(12), 2303-2308. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.161.12.2303

Fergusson, D. M., Woodward, L. J., & Horwood, L. J. (2000). Risk factors and life processes associated with the onset of suicidal behaviour during adolescence and early adulthood. Psychological medicine, 30(1), 23-39. doi: 10.1017/S003329179900135X

Frey, L. M. & Cerel, J. (2015). Risk for suicide and the role of family: A narrative review. Journal of Family Issues, 36(6), 716-736. doi: 10.1177/0192513X13515885

Goñi-Sarriés, A., Blanco, M., Azcárate, L., Peinado, R., & López-Goñi, J. J. (2018). Are previous suicide attempts a risk factor for completed suicide?. Psicothema, 30(1), 33-38. doi: 10.7334/psicothema2016.318.

Gould, M. S., Fisher, P., Parides, M., Flory, M., & Shaffer, D. (1996). Psychosocial risk factors of child and adolescent completed suicide. Archives of general psychiatry, 53(12), 1155-1162. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.1996.01830120095016

Grøholt, B., Ekeberg, Ø., Wichstrøm, L., & Haldorsen, T. (1998). Suicide among children and younger and older adolescents in Norway: a comparative study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 37(5), 473-481. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199805000-00008

Hernández Ruiz, L. (2010). Discurso en torno al suicidio en Chichí Suárez, Yucatán. Anales de Antropología, 44, 239-272.

Jokinen, J., Talbäck, M., Feychting, M., Ahlbom, A., & Ljung, R. (2018). Life expectancy after the first suicide attempt. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 137(4), 287-295. doi: 10.1111/acps.12842

Juul, S. (2006). An introduction to Stata for health researchers. STATA press.

Krysinska, K., Batterham, P. J., & Christensen, H. (2017). Differences in the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for suicidal ideation and behaviour in women and men: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Archives of suicide research, 21(1), 12-32. doi: 10.1080/13811118.2016.1162246

MacIsaac, M. B., Bugeja, L., Weiland, T., Dwyer, J., Selvakumar, K., & Jelinek, G. A. (2018). Prevalence and characteristics of interpersonal violence in people dying from suicide in Victoria, Australia. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health, 30(1), 36-44. doi: 10.1177/1010539517743615

Miller, M., Azrael, D., & Barber, C. (2012). Suicide mortality in the United States: the importance of attending to method in understanding population-level disparities in the burden of suicide. Annual review of public health, 33, 393-408. doi :10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031811-124636

Miller, M., Warren, M., Hemenway, D., & Azrael, D. (2015) Firearms and suicide in US cities. Injury prevention, 21(e1), e116-e119. doi: 10.1136/injuryprev-2013-040969

Overholser, J., Athey, A., Beale, E., Dieter, L., & Stockmeier, C. (2018). S127- How could this happen?: Psychosis or depression as a factor in death by suicide. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 44(Suppl 1), S374-S375. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sby018.914

Pompili, M., Girardi, P., Ruberto, A., Kotzalidis, G. D., & Tatarelli, R. (2005). Emergency staff reactions to suicidal and self-harming patients. European Journal of Emergency Medicine, 12(4), 169-178. PMID: 16034262. Recuperado de:

Sánchez-Cervantes, F. S., Serrano-González, R. E., & Márquez-Caraveo, M. E. (2015). Suicidios en menores de 20 años. México 1998-2011. Salud mental, 38(5), 379-389. doi: 10.17711/SM.0185-3325.2015.051

Underwood, M. D., Kassir, S. A., Bakalian, M. J., Galfalvy, H., Dwork, A. J., Mann, J. J., & Arango, V. (2018). Serotonin receptors and suicide, major depression, alcohol use disorder and reported early life adversity. Translational psychiatry, 8(1), 279. doi: 10.1038/s41398-018-0309-1

Vijayakumar, L. (2015). Suicide in women. Indian journal of psychiatry, 57(Suppl 2), 233-238. doi: 10.4103/0019-5545.161484

Villagómez Bedolla, R. I., Balcázar Musacchio, A., & Paz Ramírez, R. (2005). Suicidio en jóvenes. Revista de la Facultad de Medicina UNAM, 48(2), 54-57.

World Health Organization (WHO). (2014). Preventing suicide: a global imperative. WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data. Recuperado de:;jsessionid=0ABAF2DDA3DF5CBED0AC6659198B82C1?sequence=1

World Health Organization (WHO). (2017). Preventing suicide: a resource for media professionals - update 2017. WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data. Recuperado de:

World Health Organization (WHO). (2019). Suicide Data- update April 2019. Recuperado de:

Zorrilla Fierro, M. (2002). Diez años después del Acuerdo Nacional para la Modernización de la Educación Básica en México: Retos, tensiones y perspectivas. Revista electrónica de investigación educativa, 4(2), 1-19.