Salud Mental

Substance use and antisocial behavior: criterion-related validity of the Antisocial Process Screening Device in Mexican adolescents


Silvia Morales-Chainé
Raquel García-Flores
Christian O. Acosta-Quiroz


Introduction. Adolescents who use drugs present several health problems, including criminal behavior. The Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) is a test that evaluates current conduct disorders in adolescents.

Objective. This research carried out a cross-cultural adaptation of the APSD on Mexican population.

Method. The original version of the APSD was translated into Mexican Spanish. The final version was administered to 1 070 adolescents (958 students, 72 with minor faults, and 40 with criminal behavior) who completed the APSD and the ENCODE, the National survey on drug use. We computed correlations and regression models between APSD and ENCODE. We carried out a multivariate analysis to compare samples and quantity of drugs. Finally, we fitted the two-and three-factor models of the APSD with a CFA.

Results. The APSD scores correlated significantly with all of the ENCODE variables. In the multivariate analysis, the variable quantity of drugs was significant to rise the APSD score (F [3 847] = 7.53, p = .000). The CFA with three factors had the best fit. Reliability analysis suggests acceptable internal consistency (α = .79).

Discussion and conclusion. Our results confirmed that the Mexican Spanish version of the APSD has good psychometric properties to be used in future research.
Criminal behavior, adolescents, violence, substance-related disorders, impulse-control and conduct disorders


Arbuckle, J. L. (2012). Users Guide. IBM® SPSS® Amos™ 21. Amos Development Corporation.

Brook, D. W., Brook, J. S., Zhang, C., & Koppel, J. (2010). Association between attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder in adolescence and substance use disorder in adulthood. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 164(10), 930-934. doi: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.180

Byrne, B. (2010). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming (3rd. ed.). New York, USA: Routledge.

de Weid, M., van der Baan, H., Raaijmakers, Q., de Ruiter, C., & Meeus, W. (2014). Factor structure and construct validity of the Dutch version of the antisocial process screening device. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 36(1), 84-92. doi: 10.1007/s10862-013-9371-4

Fite, P. J., Greening, L., Stoppelbein, L., & Fabiano, G. A. (2009). Confirmatory factor analysis of the antisocial process screening device with a clinical inpatient population. Assessment, 16(1), 103-114. doi: 10.1177/1073191108319893

Frick, P. J., & Ray, J. V. (2015). Evaluating Callous-Unemotional Traits as a Personality Construct. Journal of Personality, 83(6), 710-722. doi: 10.1111/jopy.12114

Frick, P. J., Bodin, S. D., & Barry, C. T. (2000). Psychopathic traits and conduct problems in community and clinic‐referred samples of children: Further development of the psychopathy-screening device. Psychological Assessment, 12(4), 382-393. doi: 10.1037/1040-3590.12.4.382

Fridell, M., Hesse, M., & Billsten, J. (2007). Criminal behavior in antisocial substance abusers between five and fifteen years follow-up. American Journal on Addictions, 16(1), 10-14. doi: 10.1080/10550490601077734

Hambleton, R. K. (2001). The next generation of the ITC test translation and adaptation guidelines. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 17(3), 164-172. doi: 10.1027//1015-5759.17.3.164

Hare, R. D. (1991). Manual for the Hare psychopathy checklist-revised. Ontario Canada: Multi-Health Systems.

Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1-55. doi: 10.1080/10705519909540118

Jackson, D. L., Gillaspy, Jr. J. A., & Purc-Stephenson, R. (2009). Reporting practices in confirmatory factor analysis: an overview and some recommendations. Psychological Methods, 14(1) 6-23. doi: 10.1037/a0014694

Kalivas, P. W., & O’Brien, C. (2008). Drug addiction as a pathology of staged neuroplasticity. Neuropsychopharmacology, 33(1), 166-180. doi: 10.1038/sj.npp.1301564

Laajasalo, T., Saukkonen, S., Kivivuori, J., Salmi, V., Lipsanen, J., & Aronen, E. T. (2014). Brief report: self-reported psychopathic-like features among Finnish community youth: Investigation of the factor structure of the antisocial personality screening device. Journal of Adolescence, 37(7), 1185-1188. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.08.010

Pechorro, P., Gonçalves, R. A., Andershed, H., & DeLisi, M. (2017). Female psychopathic traits in forensic and school context: Comparing the antisocial process screening device self-report and the youth psychopathic traits inventory-short. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 39(4), 642-656. doi: 10.1007/s10862-017-9605-y

Peltzer, K., & Pengpid, S. (2012). Injury and social correlates among in-school adolescents in four Southeast Asian countries. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 9(8), 2851-2862. doi: 10.3390/ijerph9082851

Pope, D. A., Boomhower, S. R., Hutsell, B. A., Teixeira, K. M., & Newland, M. C. (2016). Chronic cocaine exposure in adolescence: Effects on spatial discrimination reversal, delay discounting, and performance on fixed-ratio schedules in mice. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 130, 93-104. doi: 10.1016/j.nlm.2016.01.017

Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H., & Müller, H. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research, 8(2), 23-74.

Shaffer, C., Gatner, D., Gray, A. L., Douglas, K. S., Viljoen, J. L., Tweed, R., ... Gagnon, N. (2016). Incremental and predictive validity of the antisocial process screening device in a community sample of male and female ethnic minority and caucasian youth. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44(8), 1599-1612. doi: 10.1007/s10802-016-0130-3

Tarka, P. (2017). The comparison of estimation methods on the parameter estimates and fit indices in SEM model under 7-point Likert scale. Archives of Data Science, 2(1). doi: 10.5445/KSP/1000058749/10

Van Damme, L., Colins, O. F., & Vanderplasschen, W. (2016). The limited prosocial emotions specifier for conduct disorder among detained girls: A multi-informant approach. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 43(6), 778-792. doi:10.1177/0093854815613104

Villatoro-Velázquez, J. A., Oliva-Robles, N., Fregoso-Ito, D., Bustos-Gamiño, M., Mujica-Salazar, A., Martín del Campo Sánchez, R., & Medina-Mora, M. E. (2015). Encuesta Nacional de Consumo de Drogas en Estudiantes 2014: Reporte de Drogas. México: Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz, Comisión Nacional Contra las Adicciones, Secretaría de Salud.

Villatoro-Velázquez, J. A., Oliva-Robles, N., Fregoso-Ito, D., Bustos-Gamiño, M., Mujica-Salazar, A., Martín del Campo Sánchez, R., & Medina-Mora, M. E. (2017). Encuesta Nacional de Consumo de Drogas, Alcohol y Tabaco: Reporte de Drogas. México: Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz, Comisión Nacional Contra las Adicciones, Secretaría de Salud.