Autism spectrum disorder and parental conceiving age

Andrea Abadi, Francisco R. de la Peña

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17711/SM.0185-3325.2020.014

Abstract


Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly prevalent condition worldwide. Data from epidemiological studies show an estimated median prevalence of 62 per 10 000 people, with a homogeneous distribution across ethnic and socioeconomic groups (Elsabbagh et al., 2012) outside the United States of America (USA) (Durkins et al., 2017). ASD account for a substantial health loss across the lifespan. Globally, autistic disorders accounted for more than 58 DALYs per 100 000 population (Baxter et al., 2015). For instance, in Guanajuato, Mexico, the prevalence of ASD is .87% (Fombonne et al., 2016). ASD is a neurodevelopment disorder, which also includes attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), intellectual disability, communication disorders, learning disorders, tic disorders, all of them included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders in its fifth edition (DSM-5), (American Psychiatry Association, 2013). ASD is characterized by a significant limitation in social interaction and communication, as well as by the presence of repetitive behaviors and restricted and stereotyped behaviors (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). The broadest phenotype, not restricted to DSM-5, has four latent classes in preschool children: mild language delay with cognitive rigidity; mild language and motor delay with dysregulation, general developmental delay; and significant developmental delay with repetitive motors behaviors (Wiggins el al., 2017).

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