Smartphone addiction is associated with symptoms of anxiety, depression, stress, tension, confusion, and insomnia: A cross-sectional and comparative study with physically and non-physically active adults in self-isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic

Luiz José Frota Solon Júnior, Carlos Henrique Tomaz Ribeiro, Leonardo de Sousa Fortes, Bruno Teixeira Barbosa, Luiz Vieira da Silva Neto



Introduction. During the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak, social media exposure and the use of electronic devices have increased; still, these behaviors may cause adverse health effects.

Objective. This study assessed sleep quality, insomnia, mood, and psychological aspects among physically (n = 46) and non-physically (n = 53) active individuals during self-isolation throughout the COVID-19 pandemic and examined their association with smartphone addiction.

Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted among adult Brazilian citizens in self-isolation for at least 60 days; ninety-nine volunteers from different Brazilian regions were enrolled in the online survey. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-Short Form, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Insomnia Severity Index, the Brunel Mood Scale, and the Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version were used to assess the study outcomes.

Results. The results indicate moderate and large correlations of smartphone addiction with mood subscales, insomnia (r = .52), anxiety (r = .49), depression (r = .49), and stress (r = .49) symptoms. Also, it was observed that physically active participants were less addicted to smartphones than the non-physically active during self-isolation (pp = .02), depression (pp
Discussion and conclusion. These findings show the health implications of self-isolation and how essential it is to be physically active to avoid self-isolationʼs adverse psychological effects.


Coronavirus; self-isolation; physical activity; addiction; psychological aspects

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