Salud Mental

An assessment of mental health of Mexican and Colombian medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

D. Xipe Pacheco-Tobón
Edgar Bautista-Soto
Claudia Arellano-Ramírez
Daniela Orozco-García
Lucia Ramos-Ruiz
Eliana Herbales-Martinez
Leonardo M. Porchia
Ricardo Pérez-Fuentes
M. Elba Gonzalez-Mejia

Abstract

Introduction. The COVID-19 pandemic caused the cessation of academic activities from the face-to-face format to confinement and virtual classes, in which little is studied about its effect on mental health.

Objective. Determine levels of depression, anxiety, and stress in medical students in Mexico and Colombia during the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, depression, anxiety, and stress were compared by gender, education status, and country.

Method. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 426 medical students. Data was collected using an online survey containing the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS-21) questionnaire.

Results. Overall scores for depression, anxiety, and stress were 6.7 ± 1.2, 8.8 ± 1.2, and 5.6 ± 1.2, respectively. Females had significantly higher overall scores for depression (.24-fold increase), anxiety (.25-fold increase), and stress (.40-fold increase) than males (p ≤ .01). The risk for anxiety and stress by school year showed that basic years were associated with higher scores than advanced years (.25 and .38-fold increase, respectively). For females, starting medical school did show an increased risk of depression when compared to male students in their basic years (.38-fold increase). Lastly, students from Mexico had an increased risk for depression and anxiety (p ≤ .022 and p ≤ .004, respectively) but not for stress (p ≤ .402), when compared to students from Colombia.

Discussion and conclusion. Significant anxiety and depression were observed in medical students from Mexico and Colombia. Factors associated with an increased risk of depression and anxiety are students in their basic years as well as being female.
Keywords:
COVID-19, México, Colombia, DASS-21, depression, anxiety, stress

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Al-Rabiaah, A., Temsah, M.-H., Al-Eyadhy, A. A., Hasan, G. M., Al-Zamil, F., Al-Subaie, S., ... Somily, A. M. (2020). Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus (MERS-CoV) associated stress among medical students at a university teaching hospital in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Infection and Public Health, 13(5), 687-691. doi: 10.1016/j.jiph.2020.01.005

Berenzon, S., Lara, M. A., Robles, R., & Medina-Mora, M. E. (2013). Depression: state of the art and the need for public policy and action plans in Mexico. Salud Pública de México, 55(1), 74-80.

Berryman, C., Ferguson, C. J., & Negy, C. (2018). Social Media Use and Mental Health among Young Adults. Psychiatric Quarterly, 89(2), 307-314. doi: 10.1007/s11126-017-9535-6

Bibi, A., Lin, M., Zhang, X. C., & Margraf, J. (2020). Psychometric properties and measurement invariance of Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS-21) across cultures. International Journal of Psychology, 55(6), 916-925. doi: 10.1002/ijop.12671

Brenneisen Mayer, F., Souza Santos, I., Silveira, P. S., Itaqui Lopes, M. H., de Souza, A. R., Campos, E. P., ... Tempski, P. (2016). Factors associated to depression and anxiety in medical students: a multicenter study. BMC Medical Education, 16(1), 282. doi: 10.1186/s12909-016-0791-1

Brooks, S. K., Webster, R. K., Smith, L. E., Woodland, L., Wessely, S., Greenberg, N., & Rubin, G. J. (2020). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. The Lancet, 395(10227), 912-920. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8

Cheung, K., Tam, K. Y., Tsang, M. H., Zhang, L. W., & Lit, S. W. (2020). Depression, anxiety and stress in different subgroups of first-year university students from 4-year cohort data. Journal of Affective Disorders, 274, 305-314. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2020.05.041

Diario Oficial de la Federación. (2020). ACUERDO número 23/08/21. Retrieved from https://www.dof.gob.mx/nota_detalle.php?codigo=5627244&fecha=20/08/2021

Dyrbye, L. N., Thomas, M. R., & Shanafelt, T. D. (2006). Systematic review of depression, anxiety, and other indicators of psychological distress among U.S. and Canadian medical students. Academic Medicine, 81(4), 354-373. doi: 10.1097/00001888-200604000-00009

Eysenbach, G. (2004). Improving the quality of Web surveys: the Checklist for Reporting Results of Internet E-Surveys (CHERRIES). Journal of Medical Internet Research, 6(3), e34. doi: 10.2196/jmir.6.3.e34

Fares, J., Al Tabosh, H., Saadeddin, Z., El Mouhayyar, C., & Aridi, H. (2016). Stress, Burnout and Coping Strategies in Preclinical Medical Students. North American Journal of Medical Sciences, 8(2), 75-81. doi: 10.4103/1947-2714.177299

Granados Cosme, J. A., Gómez Landeros, O., Islas Ramírez, M. I., Maldonado Pérez, G., Martínez Mendoza, H. F., & Pineda Torres, A. M. (2020). Depression, Anxiety and Suicidal Behavior in Medical Training at a University in Mexico. Investigación en Educación Médica, 9(35), 65-74. Retrieved from https://www.medigraphic.com/cgi-bin/new/resumenI.cgi?IDARTICULO=95036

INEGI. (2021). Resultados de la primera encuesta nacional de bienestar autorreportado (ENBIARE). Comunicado de prensa núm. 772/21. Retrieved from: https://www.inegi.org.mx/contenidos/saladeprensa/boletines/2021/EstSociodemo/ENBIARE_2021.pdf

Karim, F., Oyewande, A. A., Abdalla, L. F., Ehsanullah, R. C., & Khan, S. (2020). Social media use and its connection to mental health: asystematic review. Cureus, 12(6), e8627. doi: 10.7759/cureus.8627

Kumar, S. G., Kattimani, S., Sarkar, S., & Kar, S. S. (2017). Prevalence of depression and its relation to stress level among medical students in Puducherry, India. Industrial Psychiatry Journal, 26(1), 86-90. doi: 10.4103/ipj.ipj_45_15

Loh, L.-C., Ali, A. M., Ang, T.-H., & Chelliah, A. (2006). Impact of a spreading epidemic on medical students. The Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS, 13(2), 30-36.

Mao, Y., Zhang, N., Liu, J., Zhu, B., He, R., & Wang, X. (2019). A systematic review of depression and anxiety in medical students in China. BMC Medical Education, 19(1), 327. doi: 10.1186/s12909-019-1744-2

Martínez-Martínez, M., Muñoz-Zurita, G., Rojas-Valderrama, K., & Sánchez-Hernández, J. A. (2016). Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms of Undergraduate Medicine Students from Puebla, Mexico. Atención Familiar, 23(4), 145-149.

Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social. (2017). Observatorio nacional de salud mental, ONSM Colombia Guía Metodológica Actualización. Bogotá: Ministerio de Salud. Retrieved from: https://www.minsalud.gov.co/sites/rid/Lists/BibliotecaDigital/RIDE/VS/ED/GCFI/guia-ross-salud-mental.pdf

Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social. (2020). Decreto 476 de la República de Colombia. Colombia: Presidencia de la República, Secretaría Jurídica de Colombia. Retrieved from: https://coronaviruscolombia.gov.co/Covid19/docs/decretos/minsalud/113_decreto_476.pdf

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD]. (2022). Medical Graduates. Retrieved from https://data.oecd.org/healthres/medical-graduates.htm

Pabón, J. B., Espinosa, J. F. S., Correa, Y. M., Ríos, D. A. V., & Gutiérrez, U. R. (2018). Prevalencia de Sintomatología Depresiva en estudiantes del programa de Medicina de la Universidad de Caldas, Manizales-Colombia. Revista Médica de Risaralda, 24(1), 20-23.

Pai, D. R., Ram, S., Madan, S. S., Soe, H. H., & Barua, A. (2014). Causes of stress and their change with repeated sessions as perceived by undergraduate medical students during high-fidelity trauma simulation. The National Medical Journal of India, 27(4), 192-197. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25668162

Ripley, B. D. (2001). The R project in statistical computing. MSOR Connections. The Newsletter of the LTSN Maths, Stats & OR Network, 1(1), 23-25.

Rubin, G. J., & Wessely, S. (2020). The psychological effects of quarantining a city. BMJ, 368, m313. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m313

Ruiz, F. J., Martín, M. B. G., Falcón, J. C. S., & González, P. O. (2017). The hierarchical factor structure of the Spanish version of Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 17(1), 97-105.

Saldaña Orozco, C., De Loera Soto, L. A., & Madrigal Torres, B. E. (2017). Evaluation of stress academic levels of medical students of The South University Center. Case: Ciudad Guzmán. Ciencia & Trabajo, 19(58), 31-34. Retrieved from https://www.scielo.cl/pdf/cyt/v19n58/0718-2449-cyt-19-58-00031.pdf

Shigemura, J., Ursano, R. J., Morganstein, J. C., Kurosawa, M., & Benedek, D. M. (2020). Public responses to the novel 2019 coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Japan: Mental health consequences and target populations. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 74(4), 281-282. doi: 10.1111/pcn.12988

Suárez, V. G., & Fernández, M. d. R. C. (2020). Revolución, saludy humanidad. Revista Cubana deSalud Pública, 46(1), 1-6.

Taylor, M. R., Agho, K. E., Stevens, G. J., & Raphael, B. (2008). Factors influencing psychological distress during a disease epidemic: Data from Australiaʼs first outbreak of equine influenza. BMC Public Health, 8(1), 1-13. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-347

Tsao, S.-F., Chen, H., Tisseverasinghe, T., Yang, Y., Li, L., & Butt, Z. A. (2021). What social media told us in the time of COVID-19: a scoping review. The Lancet Digital Health, 3(3), e175-e194. doi: 10.1016/S2589-7500(20)30315-0

Valencia, P. D. (2022). ¿Es incorrecta la prevalencia de síntomas depresivos presentada en el informe de la Ensanut 2018-19? Salud Pública de México, 64(5), 451-452. Retrieved from https://saludpublica.mx/index.php/spm/article/view/13774

Wheaton, M. G., Abramowitz, J. S., Berman, N. C., Fabricant, L. E., & Olatunji, B. O. (2012). Psychological predictors of anxiety in response to the H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 36(3), 210-218. doi: 10.1007/s10608-011-9353-3

World Health Organization. (2020). WHO Director-Generalʼs opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 - 11 March 2020. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/director-general/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-covid-19---11-march-2020

Yohannes, A. M., Dryden, S., & Hanania, N. A. (2019). Validity and Responsiveness of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21) in COPD. Chest, 155(6), 1166-1177. doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2018.12.010